List Of Known And Suspected Human Carcinogens

by Rebecca on December 12, 2014

carcinogens List Of Known And Suspected Human Carcinogens

Known & Probable Human Carcinogens

The following lists were compiled by  the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the US National Toxicology Program (NTP).   These are long lists, and a lot of them you probably know about already, but some might be a surprise.   The two that really stuck out for me were Mineral Oil (you know, BABY OIL!) and Tamoxifen.  It really bothers me that the drug they put most breast cancer patients on, in an attempt to prevent recurrence of breast cancer, is a known carcinogen.   I opted not to take it.  That said, I don’t blame anyone for taking it.  Breast cancer is a really scary thing to be diagnosed with, and if we’re told something will help prevent it from coming back, it makes sense to take it.  When I studies the side effects, and started to understand how it works in our bodies, it made more sense in my opinion, to refuse it.

**Please note:  My decision not to use Tamoxifen should in no way be viewed as a recommendation for someone else not to take it. I did a lot of research, and talked with several doctors prior to making my decision.

Let me know in the comments which items here were a surprise for you.

xo
Rebecca

Known human carcinogens

International Agency for Research on Cancer
Group 1: Carcinogenic to humans

  • Acetaldehyde (from consuming alcoholic beverages)
  • Acid mists, strong inorganic
  • Aflatoxins
  • Alcoholic beverages
  • Aluminum production
  • 4-Aminobiphenyl
  • Areca nut
  • Aristolochic acid (and plants containing it)
  • Arsenic and inorganic arsenic compounds
  • Asbestos (all forms) and mineral substances (such as talc or vermiculite) that contain asbestos
  • Auramine production
  • Azathioprine
  • Benzene
  • Benzidine and dyes metabolized to benzidine
  • Benzo[a]pyrene
  • Beryllium and beryllium compounds
  • Betel quid, with or without tobacco
  • Bis(chloromethyl)ether and chloromethyl methyl ether (technical-grade)
  • Busulfan
  • 1,3-Butadiene
  • Cadmium and cadmium compounds
  • Chlorambucil
  • Chlornaphazine
  • Chromium (VI) compounds
  • Clonorchis sinensis (infection with), also known as the Chinese liver fluke
  • Coal, indoor emissions from household combustion
  • Coal gasification
  • Coal-tar distillation
  • Coal-tar pitch
  • Coke production
  • Cyclophosphamide
  • Cyclosporine
  • 1,2-Dichloropropane
  • Diethylstilbestrol
  • Engine exhaust, diesel
  • Epstein-Barr virus (infection with)
  • Erionite
  • Estrogen postmenopausal therapy
  • Estrogen-progestogen postmenopausal therapy (combined)
  • Estrogen-progestogen oral contraceptives (combined) (Note: There is also convincing evidence in humans that these agents confer a protective effect against cancer in the endometrium and ovary)
  • Ethanol in alcoholic beverages
  • Ethylene oxide
  • Etoposide
  • Etoposide in combination with cisplatin and bleomycin
  • Fission products, including strontium-90
  • Formaldehyde
  • Haematite mining (underground)
  • Helicobacter pylori (infection with)
  • Hepatitis B virus (chronic infection with)
  • Hepatitis C virus (chronic infection with)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) (infection with)
  • Human papilloma virus (HPV) types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59 (infection with) (Note: The HPV types that have been classified as carcinogenic to humans can differ by an order of magnitude in risk for cervical cancer)
  • Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-1) (infection with)
  • Ionizing radiation (all types)
  • Iron and steel founding (workplace exposure)
  • Isopropyl alcohol manufacture using strong acids
  • Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) (infection with), also known as human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) (infection with)
  • Leather dust
  • Magenta production
  • Melphalan
  • Methoxsalen (8-methoxypsoralen) plus ultraviolet A radiation
  • 4,4′-Methylenebis(chloroaniline) (MOCA)
  • Mineral oils, untreated or mildly treated
  • MOPP and other combined chemotherapy including alkylating agents
  • 2-Naphthylamine
  • Neutron radiation
  • Nickel compounds
  • N’-Nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(N-Nitrosomethylamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)
  • Opisthorchis viverrini (infection with), also known as the Southeast Asian liver fluke
  • Outdoor air pollution and the particulate matter in it
  • Painter (workplace exposure as a)
  • 3,4,5,3′,4′-Pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-126)
  • 2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran
  • Phenacetin (and mixtures containing it)
  • Phosphorus-32, as phosphate
  • Plutonium
  • Polychlorinated biphenyls (includes dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls with a Toxicity Equivalency Factor according to WHO:(PCBs 77, 81, 105, 114, 118, 123, 126, 156, 157, 167, 169, 189)
  • Radioiodines, including iodine-131
  • Radionuclides, alpha-particle-emitting, internally deposited (Note: Specific radionuclides for which there is sufficient evidence for carcinogenicity to humans are also listed individually as Group 1 agents)
  • Radionuclides, beta-particle-emitting, internally deposited (Note: Specific radionuclides for which there is sufficient evidence for carcinogenicity to humans are also listed individually as Group 1 agents)
  • Radium-224 and its decay products
  • Radium-226 and its decay products
  • Radium-228 and its decay products
  • Radon-222 and its decay products
  • Rubber manufacturing industry
  • Salted fish (Chinese-style)
  • Schistosoma haematobium (infection with)
  • Semustine (methyl-CCNU)
  • Shale oils
  • Silica dust, crystalline, in the form of quartz or cristobalite
  • Solar radiation
  • Soot (as found in workplace exposure of chimney sweeps)
  • Sulfur mustard
  • Tamoxifen (Note: There is also conclusive evidence that tamoxifen reduces the risk of contralateral breast cancer in breast cancer patients)
  • 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin
  • Thiotepa
  • Thorium-232 and its decay products
  • Tobacco, smokeless
  • Tobacco smoke, secondhand
  • Tobacco smoking
  • ortho-Toluidine
  • Treosulfan
  • Trichloroethylene
  • Ultraviolet (UV) radiation, including UVA, UVB, and UVC rays
  • Ultraviolet-emitting tanning devices
  • Vinyl chloride
  • Wood dust
  • X- and Gamma-radiation

National Toxicology Program 13th Report on Carcinogens
“Known to be human carcinogens”

  • Aflatoxins
  • Alcoholic beverage consumption
  • 4-Aminobiphenyl
  • Analgesic mixtures containing phenacetin
  • Aristolochic acids
  • Arsenic and inorganic arsenic compounds
  • Asbestos
  • Azathioprine
  • Benzene
  • Benzidine
  • Beryllium and beryllium compounds
  • Bis(chloromethyl) ether and technical-grade chloromethyl methyl ether
  • 1,3-Butadiene
  • 1,4-Butanediol dimethylsulfonate (also known as busulfan)
  • Cadmium and cadmium compounds
  • Chlorambucil
  • 1-(2-Chloroethyl)-3-(4-methylcyclohexyl)-1-nitrosourea (MeCCNU)
  • Chromium hexavalent compounds
  • Coal tar pitches
  • Coal tars
  • Coke oven emissions
  • Cyclophosphamide
  • Cyclosporin A
  • Diethylstilbestrol (DES)
  • Dyes metabolized to benzidine
  • Erionite
  • Estrogens, steroidal
  • Ethylene oxide
  • Formaldehyde
  • Hepatitis B virus
  • Hepatitis C virus
  • Human papilloma viruses: some genital-mucosal types
  • Melphalan
  • Methoxsalen with ultraviolet A therapy (PUVA)
  • Mineral oils (untreated and mildly treated)
  • Mustard gas
  • 2-Naphthylamine
  • Neutrons
  • Nickel compounds
  • Oral tobacco products
  • Radon
  • Silica, crystalline (respirable size)
  • Solar radiation
  • Soots
  • Strong inorganic acid mists containing sulfuric acid
  • Sunlamps or sunbeds, exposure to
  • Tamoxifen
  • 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD); “dioxin”
  • Thiotepa
  • Thorium dioxide
  • Tobacco smoke, environmental
  • Tobacco, smokeless
  • Tobacco smoking
  • o‑Toluidine
  • Vinyl chloride
  • Ultraviolet radiation, broad spectrum
  • Wood dust
  • X-radiation and gamma radiation

Probable carcinogens

International Agency for Research on Cancer
Group 2A: Probably carcinogenic to humans

  • Acrylamide
  • Adriamycin (doxorubicin)
  • Androgenic (anabolic) steroids
  • Art glass, glass containers, and press ware (manufacture of)
  • Azacitidine
  • Biomass fuel (primarily wood), emissions from household combustion
  • Bischloroethyl nitrosourea (BCNU)
  • Captafol
  • Carbon electrode manufacture
  • Chloral
  • Chloral hydrate
  • Chloramphenicol
  • alpha-Chlorinated toluenes (benzal chloride, benzotrichloride, benzyl chloride) and benzoyl chloride (combined exposures)
  • 1-(2-Chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea (CCNU)
  • 4-Chloro-ortho-toluidine
  • Chlorozotocin
  • Cisplatin
  • Cobalt metal with tungsten carbide
  • Creosotes
  • Cyclopenta[cd]pyrene
  • Dibenz[a,h]anthracene
  • Dibenzo[a,l]pyrene
  • Dichloromethane (methylene chloride)
  • Diethyl sulfate
  • Dimethylcarbamoyl chloride
  • 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine
  • Dimethyl sulfate
  • Epichlorohydrin
  • Ethyl carbamate (urethane)
  • Ethylene dibromide
  • N-Ethyl-N-nitrosourea
  • Frying, emissions from high-temperature
  • Glycidol
  • Hairdresser or barber (workplace exposure as)
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) type 68 (infection with)
  • Indium phosphide
  • IQ (2-Amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline)
  • Lead compounds, inorganic
  • Mate, hot
  • Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV)
  • 5-Methoxypsoralen
  • Methyl methanesulfonate
  • N-Methyl-N´-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)
  • N-Methyl-N-nitrosourea
  • Nitrate or nitrite (ingested) under conditions that result in endogenous nitrosation
  • 6-Nitrochrysene
  • Nitrogen mustard
  • 1-Nitropyrene
  • N-Nitrosodiethylamine
  • N-Nitrosodimethylamine
  • 2-Nitrotoluene
  • Non-arsenical insecticides (workplace exposures in spraying and application of)
  • Petroleum refining (workplace exposures in)
  • Pioglitazone
  • Polybrominated biphenyls
  • Procarbazine hydrochloride
  • 1,3-Propane sultone
  • Shiftwork that involves circadian disruption
  • Styrene-7,8-oxide
  • Teniposide
  • Tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene)
  • Tetrafluoroethylene
  • Trichloroethylene
  • 1,2,3-Trichloropropane
  • Tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate
  • Vinyl bromide (Note: For practical purposes, vinyl bromide should be considered to act similarly to the human carcinogen vinyl chloride.)
  • Vinyl fluoride (Note: For practical purposes, vinyl fluoride should be considered to act similarly to the human carcinogen vinyl chloride.)

National Toxicology Program 12th Report on Carcinogens
“Reasonably anticipated to be human carcinogens”

  • Acetaldehyde
  • 2-Acetylaminofluorene
  • Acrylamide
  • Acrylonitrile
  • Adriamycin® (doxorubicin hydrochloride)
  • 2-Aminoanthraquinone
  • o-Aminoazotoluene
  • 1-Amino-2,4-dibromoanthraquinone
  • 1-Amino-2-methylanthraquinone
  • 2-Amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ)
  • 2-Amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx)
  • 2-Amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ)
  • 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)
  • Amitrole
  • o-Anisidine and its hydrochloride
  • Azacitidine (5-Azacytidine®, 5-AzaC)
  • Basic Red 9 Monohydrochloride
  • Benz[a]anthracene
  • Benzo[b]fluoranthene
  • Benzo[j]fluoranthene
  • Benzo[k]fluoranthene
  • Benzo[a]pyrene
  • Benzotrichloride
  • 2, 2-bis-(bromoethyl)-1,3-propanediol (technical grade)
  • Bromodichloromethane
  • 1-Bromopropane
  • Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA)
  • Captafol
  • Carbon tetrachloride
  • Ceramic fibers (respirable size)
  • Chloramphenicol
  • Chlorendic acid
  • Chlorinated paraffins (C12, 60% chlorine)
  • Chloroform
  • 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea
  • Bis(chloroethyl) nitrosourea
  • 3-Chloro-2-methylpropene
  • 4-Chloro-o-phenylenediamine
  • Chloroprene
  • p-Chloro-o-toluidine and p-chloro-o-toluidine hydrochloride
  • Chlorozotocin
  • Cisplatin
  • Cobalt sulfate
  • Cobalt-tungsten carbide: powders and hard metals
  • p-Cresidine
  • Cumene
  • Cupferron
  • Dacarbazine
  • Danthron (1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone)
  • 2,4-Diaminoanisole sulfate
  • 2,4-Diaminotoluene
  • Diazoaminobenzene
  • Dibenz[a,h]acridine
  • Dibenz[a,j]acridine
  • Dibenz[a,h]anthracene
  • 7H-Dibenzo[c,g]carbazole
  • Dibenzo[a,e]pyrene
  • Dibenzo[a,h]pyrene
  • Dibenzo[a,i]pyrene
  • Dibenzo[a,l]pyrene
  • 1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane
  • 1,2-Dibromoethane (ethylene dibromide)
  • 2,3-Dibromo-1-propanol
  • Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate
  • 1,4-Dichlorobenzene
  • 3,3′-Dichlorobenzidine and 3,3′-dichlorobenzidine dihydrochloride
  • Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)
  • 1,2-Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride)
  • Dichloromethane (methylene chloride)
  • 1,3-Dichloropropene (technical grade)
  • Diepoxybutane
  • Diesel exhaust particulates
  • Diethyl sulfate
  • Diglycidyl resorcinol ether
  • 3,3′-Dimethoxybenzidine
  • 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene
  • 3,3′-Dimethylbenzidine
  • Dimethylcarbamoyl chloride
  • 1,1-Dimethylhydrazine
  • Dimethyl sulfate
  • Dimethylvinyl chloride
  • 1,6-Dinitropyrene
  • 1,8-Dinitropyrene
  • 1,4-Dioxane
  • Disperse blue 1
  • Dyes metabolized to 3,3′-dimethoxybenzidine
  • Dyes metabolized to 3,3′-dimethylbenzidine
  • Epichlorohydrin
  • Ethylene thiourea
  • Ethyl methanesulfonate
  • Furan
  • Glass wool fibers (inhalable)
  • Glycidol
  • Hexachlorobenzene
  • Hexachlorocyclohexane isomers
  • Hexachloroethane
  • Hexamethylphosphoramide
  • Hydrazine and hydrazine sulfate
  • Hydrazobenzene
  • Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene
  • Iron dextran complex
  • Isoprene
  • Kepone® (chlordecone)
  • Lead and lead compounds
  • Lindane, hexachlorocyclohexane
  • 2-Methylaziridine (propylenimine)
  • 5-Methylchrysene
  • 4,4′-Methylenebis(2-chloroaniline)
  • 4-4′-Methylenebis(N,N-dimethyl)benzenamine
  • 4,4′-Methylenedianiline and its dihydrochloride salt
  • Methyleugenol
  • Methyl methanesulfonate
  • N-methyl-N’-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine
  • Metronidazole
  • Michler’s ketone [4,4'-(dimethylamino) benzophenone]
  • Mirex
  • Naphthalene
  • Nickel, metallic
  • Nitrilotriacetic acid
  • o-Nitroanisole
  • Nitrobenzene
  • 6-Nitrochrysene
  • Nitrofen (2,4-dichlorophenyl-p-nitrophenyl ether)
  • Nitrogen mustard hydrochloride
  • Nitromethane
  • 2-Nitropropane
  • 1-Nitropyrene
  • 4-Nitropyrene
  • N-nitrosodi-n-butylamine
  • N-nitrosodiethanolamine
  • N-nitrosodiethylamine
  • N-nitrosodimethylamine
  • N-nitrosodi-n-propylamine
  • N-nitroso-N-ethylurea
  • 4-(N-nitrosomethylamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone
  • N-nitroso-N-methylurea
  • N-nitrosomethylvinylamine
  • N-nitrosomorpholine
  • N-nitrosonornicotine
  • N-nitrosopiperidine
  • N-nitrosopyrrolidine
  • N-nitrososarcosine
  • o-Nitrotoluene
  • Norethisterone
  • Ochratoxin A
  • 4,4′-Oxydianiline
  • Oxymetholone
  • Pentachlorophenol and by-products of its synthesis
  • Phenacetin
  • Phenazopyridine hydrochloride
  • Phenolphthalein
  • Phenoxybenzamine hydrochloride
  • Phenytoin and phenytoin sodium
  • Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs)
  • Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)
  • Procarbazine and Its hydrochloride
  • Progesterone
  • 1,3-Propane sultone
  • beta-Propiolactone
  • Propylene oxide
  • Propylthiouracil
  • Reserpine
  • Riddelliine
  • Safrole
  • Selenium sulfide
  • Streptozotocin
  • Styrene
  • Styrene-7,8-oxide
  • Sulfallate
  • Tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene)
  • Tetrafluoroethylene
  • Tetranitromethane
  • Thioacetamide
  • 4,4′-Thiodianaline
  • Thiourea
  • Toluene diisocyanates
  • Toxaphene
  • Trichloroethylene
  • 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol
  • 1,2,3-Trichloropropane
  • Tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate
  • Ultraviolet A radiation
  • Ultraviolet B radiation
  • Ultraviolet C radiation
  • Urethane
  • Vinyl bromide
  • 4-Vinyl-1-cyclohexene diepoxide
  • Vinyl fluoride

For more information, please visit the American Cancer Society website Cancer.org

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